Sodium intake and blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

E. van den Berg, J.M. Geleijnse, E.J. Brink, M.A. van Baak, J.J. van der Homan van der Heide, R.O.B. Gans, G. Navis, S.J.L. Bakker

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Background - Hypertension is common among renal transplant recipients (RTR) and a risk factor for graft failure and mortality. Sodium intake is a well-established determinant of blood pressure (BP) in the general population. However, data in RTR are limited. International guidelines recommend a maximum daily sodium intake of 70 mmol. We investigated sodium intake in RTR as compared to healthy controls and its association with BP. Methods - We included 660 RTR (age 53 ± 13 years, 58% male) and 201 healthy controls (age 54 ± 11 years, 46% male). Sodium intake was assessed from 24-h urine collections. The morning after completion of urine collection, BP was measured according to a strict protocol. Results. Urinary sodium excretion was 156 ± 62 mmol/24 h in RTR and 195 ± 75 in controls (difference: P <0.001), and 95% of RTR had a urinary sodium excretion >70 mmol/24 h. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 136 ± 18 and 82 ± 11 mmHg, respectively. Sodium intake was positively associated with SBP (ß = 0.042 mmHg/mmol/24 h, P = 0.002) and DBP (ß = 0.023 mmHg/mmol/24 h, P = 0.007), independent of potential confounders. Conclusions - Although RTR had a lower sodium intake than healthy controls, their intake still exceeded current guidelines. Reduction of sodium intake to recommended amounts could reduce SBP by 4–5 mmHg. Better control of sodium intake may help to prevent graft failure and mortality due to hypertension among RTR.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3352-3359
JournalNephrol Dial Transplant
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • chronic kidney-disease
  • converting enzyme-inhibition
  • urinary albumin excretion
  • dietary salt intake
  • cardiovascular-disease
  • united-states
  • obesity hypertension
  • ace-inhibition
  • restriction
  • population

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