Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa

Kelvin M. Shikuku, Leigh Winowiecki, Jennifer Twyman, Anton Eitzinger, Juan G. Perez, Caroline Mwongera, Peter Läderach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

LanguageEnglish
Pages234-245
JournalClimate Risk Management
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

farmers attitude
East Africa
smallholder
farmer
climate
determinants
crop
hunger
soil management
food
food security
farming system
land management
resilience
livelihood
water management
group formation
household size
nutrition situation
liquidity

Keywords

  • Climate risks
  • East Africa
  • Farmers’ attitudes
  • Livelihood-based adaptation
  • Rasch analysis

Cite this

Shikuku, K. M., Winowiecki, L., Twyman, J., Eitzinger, A., Perez, J. G., Mwongera, C., & Läderach, P. (2017). Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 234-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.03.001
Shikuku, Kelvin M. ; Winowiecki, Leigh ; Twyman, Jennifer ; Eitzinger, Anton ; Perez, Juan G. ; Mwongera, Caroline ; Läderach, Peter. / Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa. In: Climate Risk Management. 2017 ; Vol. 16. pp. 234-245.
@article{cf694938ba114d198e9cbda07dc22bbd,
title = "Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa",
abstract = "Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25{\%} quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50{\%} quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75{\%} quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.",
keywords = "Climate risks, East Africa, Farmers’ attitudes, Livelihood-based adaptation, Rasch analysis",
author = "Shikuku, {Kelvin M.} and Leigh Winowiecki and Jennifer Twyman and Anton Eitzinger and Perez, {Juan G.} and Caroline Mwongera and Peter L{\"a}derach",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.crm.2017.03.001",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "234--245",
journal = "Climate Risk Management",
issn = "2212-0963",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Shikuku, KM, Winowiecki, L, Twyman, J, Eitzinger, A, Perez, JG, Mwongera, C & Läderach, P 2017, 'Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa', Climate Risk Management, vol. 16, pp. 234-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.03.001

Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa. / Shikuku, Kelvin M.; Winowiecki, Leigh; Twyman, Jennifer; Eitzinger, Anton; Perez, Juan G.; Mwongera, Caroline; Läderach, Peter.

In: Climate Risk Management, Vol. 16, 2017, p. 234-245.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa

AU - Shikuku, Kelvin M.

AU - Winowiecki, Leigh

AU - Twyman, Jennifer

AU - Eitzinger, Anton

AU - Perez, Juan G.

AU - Mwongera, Caroline

AU - Läderach, Peter

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

AB - Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household's livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile), adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile) level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile) level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

KW - Climate risks

KW - East Africa

KW - Farmers’ attitudes

KW - Livelihood-based adaptation

KW - Rasch analysis

U2 - 10.1016/j.crm.2017.03.001

DO - 10.1016/j.crm.2017.03.001

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 234

EP - 245

JO - Climate Risk Management

T2 - Climate Risk Management

JF - Climate Risk Management

SN - 2212-0963

ER -