Small Subunit rDNA-Based Phylogeny of the Tylenchida Sheds Light on Relationships Among Some High-Impact Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and the Evolution of Plant Feeding

M.H.M. Holterman, G. Karssen, S.J.J. van den Elsen, H.H.B. van Megen, J. Bakker, J. Helder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

133 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cyst (Heteroderidae), root knot (Meloidogyne spp.), and lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) nematodes all belong to a single nematode order, Tylenchida. However, the relationships between and within these economically highly relevant groups, and their relatedness to other parasitic Tylenchida is unclear. We constructed a phylogeny of 116 Tylenchida taxa based on full length small subunit ribosomal DNA (small subunit [SSU] rDNA) sequences. Ancestral state reconstruction points at a gradual development of simple to more complex forms of plant parasitism. Good resolution was observed in distal clades that include cyst, root knot, and lesion nematodes, and monophyly of most families was confirmed. Our data suggest that root knot nematodes have evolved from an ancestral member of the genus Pratylenchus, but it remains unclear which species is closest to this branching point. Contrary to the notoriously polyphagous distal representatives, basal members of the genus Meloidogyne (and probably, their common ancestor) have narrow host ranges. Our analysis also shows that mitotic parthenogeny has arisen at least two times independently among root knot nematodes. In many cases resolution till species was observed, suggesting that SSU rDNA sequences have a potential for DNA barcode-based species identification with, due to the overall conserved nature of this gene, limited intra-species variation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-235
JournalPhytopathology
Volume99
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Keywords

  • root-knot nematodes
  • population genetic-structure
  • beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes
  • bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
  • terrestrial habitats
  • cyst nematodes
  • ribosomal-rna
  • mixed models
  • meloidogyne
  • reveals

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