Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days

B.A.D. van Bunnik, A. Ssematimba, T.H.J. Hagenaars, G. Nodelijk, M.R. Haverkate, M.J.M. Bonten, M.K. Hayden, R.A. Weinstein, M.C.J. Bootsma, M. de Jong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3556-3560
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume111
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

bacteria
pathogens
decay rates
infectious diseases
mathematical models
estimating
diffusion coefficient
routes
decay

Keywords

  • indirect transmission
  • mouth epidemic
  • foot
  • campylobacter
  • broilers
  • dynamics
  • impact
  • model
  • care
  • uk

Cite this

van Bunnik, B.A.D. ; Ssematimba, A. ; Hagenaars, T.H.J. ; Nodelijk, G. ; Haverkate, M.R. ; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Hayden, M.K. ; Weinstein, R.A. ; Bootsma, M.C.J. ; de Jong, M. / Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 ; Vol. 111, No. 9. pp. 3556-3560.
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abstract = "Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.",
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author = "{van Bunnik}, B.A.D. and A. Ssematimba and T.H.J. Hagenaars and G. Nodelijk and M.R. Haverkate and M.J.M. Bonten and M.K. Hayden and R.A. Weinstein and M.C.J. Bootsma and {de Jong}, M.",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1310043111",
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van Bunnik, BAD, Ssematimba, A, Hagenaars, THJ, Nodelijk, G, Haverkate, MR, Bonten, MJM, Hayden, MK, Weinstein, RA, Bootsma, MCJ & de Jong, M 2014, 'Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 3556-3560. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1310043111

Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days. / van Bunnik, B.A.D.; Ssematimba, A.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Nodelijk, G.; Haverkate, M.R.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Hayden, M.K.; Weinstein, R.A.; Bootsma, M.C.J.; de Jong, M.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 111, No. 9, 2014, p. 3556-3560.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Small distances can keep bacteria at bay for days

AU - van Bunnik, B.A.D.

AU - Ssematimba, A.

AU - Hagenaars, T.H.J.

AU - Nodelijk, G.

AU - Haverkate, M.R.

AU - Bonten, M.J.M.

AU - Hayden, M.K.

AU - Weinstein, R.A.

AU - Bootsma, M.C.J.

AU - de Jong, M.

PY - 2014

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N2 - Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.

AB - Transmission of pathogens between spatially separated hosts, i.e., indirect transmission, is a commonly encountered phenomenon important for epidemic pathogen spread. The routes of indirect transmission often remain untraced, making it difficult to develop control strategies. Here we used a tailor-made design to study indirect transmission experimentally, using two different zoonotic bacteria in broilers. Previous experiments using a single bacterial species yielded a delay in the onset of transmission, which we hypothesized to result from the interplay between diffusive motion of infectious material and decay of infectivity in the environment. Indeed, a mathematical model of diffusive pathogen transfer predicts a delay in transmission that depends both on the distance between hosts and on the magnitude of the pathogen decay rate. Our experiments, carried out with two bacterial species with very different decay rates in the environment, confirm the difference in transmission delay predicted by the model. These results imply that for control of an infectious agent, the time between the distant exposure and the infection event is important. To illustrate how this can work we analyzed data observed on the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in an intensive care unit. Indeed, a delayed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission component was identified in these data, and this component disappeared in a study period in which the environment was thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, we suggest that the impact of control strategies against indirect transmission can be assessed using our model by estimating the control measures’ effects on the diffusion coefficient and the pathogen decay rate.

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KW - mouth epidemic

KW - foot

KW - campylobacter

KW - broilers

KW - dynamics

KW - impact

KW - model

KW - care

KW - uk

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DO - 10.1073/pnas.1310043111

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SP - 3556

EP - 3560

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

T2 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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