Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

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90 Citations (Scopus)


Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions and tailored matrix formulations are required to avoid severe heat damage leading to loss in enzyme activity or reduced survival of bacteria. An overview is provided on the use of protective carbohydrate-rich formulations in the spray drying of enzymes and probiotics. Subsequently, single droplet drying experimentation methods are reviewed for mapping drying trajectories of individual droplets. The advantage of these is to provide insight in inactivation kinetics of enzymes and probiotics and thus contribute to unravelling of stabilisation mechanisms. Finally, it is shown that detailed modelling of single droplet drying and insight in micro-structural changes during drying can be complementary to the experimental single droplet approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-82
JournalTrends in Food Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • acid starter cultures
  • glass-transition temperature
  • inactivation kinetics
  • enthalpy relaxation
  • water activity
  • milk droplets
  • foods
  • state
  • mechanisms
  • stability

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