Signatures of adaptation to obligate biotrophy in the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis genome

L. Baxter, S. Tripathy, N. Ishaque, N. Boot, A. Cabral, E. Kemen, M. Thines, A. Ah-Fong, R. Anderson, W. Badejoko, P. Bittner-Eddy, J.L. Boore, M.C. Chibucos, M. Coates, P. Dehal, K. Delehaunty, S. Dong, P. Downton, B. Dumas, G. FabroC. Fronick, S.I. Fuerstenberg, L. Fulton, E. Gaulin, F. Govers, L. Hughes, S. Humphray, R.H.Y. Jiang, H. Judelson, S. Kamoun, K. Kyung, H.J.G. Meijer, P. Minx, P. Morris, J. Nelson, V. Phuntumart, D. Qutob, A. Rehmany, A. Rougon-Cardoso, P. Ryden, T. Torto-Alalibo, D. Studholme, Y. Wang, J. Win, J. Wood, S.W. Clifton, J. Rogers, G. van den Ackerveken, J.D.G. Jones, J.M. McDowell, J. Beynon, B.M. Tyler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

346 Citations (Scopus)


Many oomycete and fungal plant pathogens are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissue and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Although these pathogens cause substantial crop losses, little is known about the molecular basis or evolution of obligate biotrophy. Here, we report the genome sequence of the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), an obligate biotroph and natural pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana. In comparison with genomes of related, hemibiotrophic Phytophthora species, the Hpa genome exhibits dramatic reductions in genes encoding (i) RXLR effectors and other secreted pathogenicity proteins, (ii) enzymes for assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur, and (iii) proteins associated with zoospore formation and motility. These attributes comprise a genomic signature of evolution toward obligate biotrophy
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1549-1551
Issue number6010
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • sojae-effector avr1b
  • downy mildew
  • phytophthora
  • plant
  • thaliana
  • cells
  • suppression
  • parasites
  • proteins
  • delivery


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