Sialyllactose and Galactooligosaccharides Promote Epithelial Barrier Functioning and Distinctly Modulate Microbiota Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production In Vitro

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Abstract


Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and prebiotic oligosaccharides are proposed to confer several health benefits to the infant. They shape the microbiota, have anti-inflammatory properties, and support epithelial barrier functioning. However, in order to select the best oligosaccharides for inclusion in infant formulas, there is a need to increase our understanding of the specific effects of HMO and prebiotics on the host immune system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the HMO sialyllactose (SL), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on epithelial barrier functioning, microbiota composition, and SCFA production. The effect of GOS and SL on epithelial barrier functioning and microbiota composition was investigated using in vitro models. Epithelial barrier function was investigated by transcriptome analysis of fully polarized Caco-2 cells exposed for 6 h to SL or GOS. In addition, epithelial cell growth, alkaline phosphatase production, and re-epithelization was studied. Further, we investigated the effect of SL and GOS on microbiota composition and SCFA production using in vitro fecal batch cultures. Transcriptome analysis showed that SL and GOS both induced pathways that regulate cell cycle control. This gene-expression profile translated to a phenotype of halted proliferation and included the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of epithelial cell differentiation. SL and GOS also promoted re-epithelialization in an in vitro epithelial wound repair assay. SL and GOS did show distinct modulation of microbiota composition, promoting the outgrowth of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria, respectively, which resulted in distinct changes in SCFA production profiles. Our results show that SL and GOS can both modulate epithelial barrier function by inducing differentiation and epithelial wound repair, but differentially promote the growth of specific genera in the microbiota, which is associated with differential changes in SCFA profiles




Introduction
LanguageEnglish
Article number94
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2019

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Volatile Fatty Acids
Microbiota
Oligosaccharides
Human Milk
Prebiotics
Gene Expression Profiling
Alkaline Phosphatase
Epithelial Cells
Re-Epithelialization
Infant Formula
Bacteroides
Batch Cell Culture Techniques
Bifidobacterium
Caco-2 Cells
In Vitro Techniques
N-acetylneuraminoyllactose
Wounds and Injuries
Insurance Benefits
Growth
Cell Cycle Checkpoints

Cite this

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title = "Sialyllactose and Galactooligosaccharides Promote Epithelial Barrier Functioning and Distinctly Modulate Microbiota Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production In Vitro",
abstract = "Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and prebiotic oligosaccharides are proposed to confer several health benefits to the infant. They shape the microbiota, have anti-inflammatory properties, and support epithelial barrier functioning. However, in order to select the best oligosaccharides for inclusion in infant formulas, there is a need to increase our understanding of the specific effects of HMO and prebiotics on the host immune system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the HMO sialyllactose (SL), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on epithelial barrier functioning, microbiota composition, and SCFA production. The effect of GOS and SL on epithelial barrier functioning and microbiota composition was investigated using in vitro models. Epithelial barrier function was investigated by transcriptome analysis of fully polarized Caco-2 cells exposed for 6 h to SL or GOS. In addition, epithelial cell growth, alkaline phosphatase production, and re-epithelization was studied. Further, we investigated the effect of SL and GOS on microbiota composition and SCFA production using in vitro fecal batch cultures. Transcriptome analysis showed that SL and GOS both induced pathways that regulate cell cycle control. This gene-expression profile translated to a phenotype of halted proliferation and included the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of epithelial cell differentiation. SL and GOS also promoted re-epithelialization in an in vitro epithelial wound repair assay. SL and GOS did show distinct modulation of microbiota composition, promoting the outgrowth of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria, respectively, which resulted in distinct changes in SCFA production profiles. Our results show that SL and GOS can both modulate epithelial barrier function by inducing differentiation and epithelial wound repair, but differentially promote the growth of specific genera in the microbiota, which is associated with differential changes in SCFA profilesIntroduction",
author = "Olaf Perdijk and {Van Baarlen}, Peter and Fernandez-Gutierrez, {Marcela M.} and {Van Den Brink}, Erik and Schuren, {Frank H.J.} and Sylvia Brugman and Savelkoul, {Huub F.J.} and Michiel Kleerebezem and {Van Neerven}, R.J.J.",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "12",
doi = "10.3389/fimmu.2019.00094",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Frontiers in Immunology",
issn = "1664-3224",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Sialyllactose and Galactooligosaccharides Promote Epithelial Barrier Functioning and Distinctly Modulate Microbiota Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production In Vitro

AU - Perdijk, Olaf

AU - Van Baarlen, Peter

AU - Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela M.

AU - Van Den Brink, Erik

AU - Schuren, Frank H.J.

AU - Brugman, Sylvia

AU - Savelkoul, Huub F.J.

AU - Kleerebezem, Michiel

AU - Van Neerven, R.J.J.

PY - 2019/2/12

Y1 - 2019/2/12

N2 - Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and prebiotic oligosaccharides are proposed to confer several health benefits to the infant. They shape the microbiota, have anti-inflammatory properties, and support epithelial barrier functioning. However, in order to select the best oligosaccharides for inclusion in infant formulas, there is a need to increase our understanding of the specific effects of HMO and prebiotics on the host immune system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the HMO sialyllactose (SL), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on epithelial barrier functioning, microbiota composition, and SCFA production. The effect of GOS and SL on epithelial barrier functioning and microbiota composition was investigated using in vitro models. Epithelial barrier function was investigated by transcriptome analysis of fully polarized Caco-2 cells exposed for 6 h to SL or GOS. In addition, epithelial cell growth, alkaline phosphatase production, and re-epithelization was studied. Further, we investigated the effect of SL and GOS on microbiota composition and SCFA production using in vitro fecal batch cultures. Transcriptome analysis showed that SL and GOS both induced pathways that regulate cell cycle control. This gene-expression profile translated to a phenotype of halted proliferation and included the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of epithelial cell differentiation. SL and GOS also promoted re-epithelialization in an in vitro epithelial wound repair assay. SL and GOS did show distinct modulation of microbiota composition, promoting the outgrowth of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria, respectively, which resulted in distinct changes in SCFA production profiles. Our results show that SL and GOS can both modulate epithelial barrier function by inducing differentiation and epithelial wound repair, but differentially promote the growth of specific genera in the microbiota, which is associated with differential changes in SCFA profilesIntroduction

AB - Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and prebiotic oligosaccharides are proposed to confer several health benefits to the infant. They shape the microbiota, have anti-inflammatory properties, and support epithelial barrier functioning. However, in order to select the best oligosaccharides for inclusion in infant formulas, there is a need to increase our understanding of the specific effects of HMO and prebiotics on the host immune system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the HMO sialyllactose (SL), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on epithelial barrier functioning, microbiota composition, and SCFA production. The effect of GOS and SL on epithelial barrier functioning and microbiota composition was investigated using in vitro models. Epithelial barrier function was investigated by transcriptome analysis of fully polarized Caco-2 cells exposed for 6 h to SL or GOS. In addition, epithelial cell growth, alkaline phosphatase production, and re-epithelization was studied. Further, we investigated the effect of SL and GOS on microbiota composition and SCFA production using in vitro fecal batch cultures. Transcriptome analysis showed that SL and GOS both induced pathways that regulate cell cycle control. This gene-expression profile translated to a phenotype of halted proliferation and included the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of epithelial cell differentiation. SL and GOS also promoted re-epithelialization in an in vitro epithelial wound repair assay. SL and GOS did show distinct modulation of microbiota composition, promoting the outgrowth of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria, respectively, which resulted in distinct changes in SCFA production profiles. Our results show that SL and GOS can both modulate epithelial barrier function by inducing differentiation and epithelial wound repair, but differentially promote the growth of specific genera in the microbiota, which is associated with differential changes in SCFA profilesIntroduction

U2 - 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00094

DO - 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00094

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Frontiers in Immunology

T2 - Frontiers in Immunology

JF - Frontiers in Immunology

SN - 1664-3224

M1 - 94

ER -