Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird

Marcel E. Visser, Coby van Dooremalen, Barbara M. Tomotani, Andrey Bushuev, Harro A.J. Meijer, Luc Te Marvelde, Phillip Gienapp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased-intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.

LanguageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of experimental biology
Volume222
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

Basal Metabolism
basal metabolic rate
songbirds
Music
song
Workload
Birds
energetics
bird
feeding frequency
expenditure
energy
energy expenditure
Energy Metabolism
Songbirds
chicks
birds
Health Expenditures
rate
Energy Intake

Keywords

  • Basal metabolic rate
  • Compensation hypothesis
  • Daily energy expenditure
  • Feeding frequency
  • Ficedula hypoleuca
  • Increased-intake hypothesis

Cite this

@article{7e5605894f0c435a92b5cc9dee6a595f,
title = "Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird",
abstract = "Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased-intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.",
keywords = "Basal metabolic rate, Compensation hypothesis, Daily energy expenditure, Feeding frequency, Ficedula hypoleuca, Increased-intake hypothesis",
author = "Visser, {Marcel E.} and {van Dooremalen}, Coby and Tomotani, {Barbara M.} and Andrey Bushuev and Meijer, {Harro A.J.} and {Te Marvelde}, Luc and Phillip Gienapp",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.199513",
language = "English",
volume = "222",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists",

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Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird. / Visser, Marcel E.; van Dooremalen, Coby; Tomotani, Barbara M.; Bushuev, Andrey; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Te Marvelde, Luc; Gienapp, Phillip.

In: The Journal of experimental biology, Vol. 222, 19.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird

AU - Visser, Marcel E.

AU - van Dooremalen, Coby

AU - Tomotani, Barbara M.

AU - Bushuev, Andrey

AU - Meijer, Harro A.J.

AU - Te Marvelde, Luc

AU - Gienapp, Phillip

PY - 2019/7/19

Y1 - 2019/7/19

N2 - Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased-intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.

AB - Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased-intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.

KW - Basal metabolic rate

KW - Compensation hypothesis

KW - Daily energy expenditure

KW - Feeding frequency

KW - Ficedula hypoleuca

KW - Increased-intake hypothesis

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.199513

DO - 10.1242/jeb.199513

M3 - Article

VL - 222

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

T2 - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

ER -