Short communication

Growth of dairy isolates of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans in skim milk depends on lactose degradation products supplied by Anoxybacillus flavithermus as secondary species

Y. Zhao, M. Kumar, M.P.M. Caspers, M.N. Nierop Groot, J.M.B.M. van der Vossen, T. Abee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G. thermoglucosidans strains were acquired, with special attention given to carbohydrate utilization clusters and proteolytic enzymes. Focusing on traits relevant for dairy environments, comparative genomic analysis revealed that all G. thermoglucosidans strains lacked the genes necessary for lactose transport and metabolism, showed poor growth in skim milk, and produced white colonies on X-gal plates, indicating the lack of β-galactosidase activity. The A. flavithermus isolates scored positive in these tests, consistent with the presence of a putative lactose utilization gene cluster. All tested isolates from both species showed proteolytic activity on milk plate count agar plates. Adding glucose or galactose to liquid skim milk supported growth of G. thermoglucosidans isolates, in line with the presence of the respective monosaccharide utilization gene clusters in the genomes. Analysis by HPLC of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 culture filtrate indicated that the previously described growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans in skim milk was based on the supply of glucose and galactose by A. flavithermus TNO-09.006.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1019
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume101
Issue number2
Early online date15 Nov 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

Fingerprint

Anoxybacillus
Anoxybacillus flavithermus
Geobacillus
skim milk
Lactose
animal communication
lactose
dairies
Milk
degradation
Growth
multigene family
galactose
Multigene Family
Galactose
galactosidases
glucose
Galactosidases
Genome
genome

Keywords

  • Symbiosis
  • Thermophile
  • Thermoresistant spore

Cite this

@article{7e4e1d680ee24bbd9c5dd616619fb3da,
title = "Short communication: Growth of dairy isolates of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans in skim milk depends on lactose degradation products supplied by Anoxybacillus flavithermus as secondary species",
abstract = "Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G. thermoglucosidans strains were acquired, with special attention given to carbohydrate utilization clusters and proteolytic enzymes. Focusing on traits relevant for dairy environments, comparative genomic analysis revealed that all G. thermoglucosidans strains lacked the genes necessary for lactose transport and metabolism, showed poor growth in skim milk, and produced white colonies on X-gal plates, indicating the lack of β-galactosidase activity. The A. flavithermus isolates scored positive in these tests, consistent with the presence of a putative lactose utilization gene cluster. All tested isolates from both species showed proteolytic activity on milk plate count agar plates. Adding glucose or galactose to liquid skim milk supported growth of G. thermoglucosidans isolates, in line with the presence of the respective monosaccharide utilization gene clusters in the genomes. Analysis by HPLC of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 culture filtrate indicated that the previously described growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans in skim milk was based on the supply of glucose and galactose by A. flavithermus TNO-09.006.",
keywords = "Symbiosis, Thermophile, Thermoresistant spore",
author = "Y. Zhao and M. Kumar and M.P.M. Caspers and {Nierop Groot}, M.N. and {van der Vossen}, J.M.B.M. and T. Abee",
year = "2018",
month = "2",
doi = "10.3168/jds.2017-13372",
language = "English",
volume = "101",
pages = "1013--1019",
journal = "Journal of Dairy Science",
issn = "0022-0302",
publisher = "American Dairy Science Association",
number = "2",

}

Short communication : Growth of dairy isolates of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans in skim milk depends on lactose degradation products supplied by Anoxybacillus flavithermus as secondary species. / Zhao, Y.; Kumar, M.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; van der Vossen, J.M.B.M.; Abee, T.

In: Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 101, No. 2, 02.2018, p. 1013-1019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short communication

T2 - Growth of dairy isolates of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans in skim milk depends on lactose degradation products supplied by Anoxybacillus flavithermus as secondary species

AU - Zhao, Y.

AU - Kumar, M.

AU - Caspers, M.P.M.

AU - Nierop Groot, M.N.

AU - van der Vossen, J.M.B.M.

AU - Abee, T.

PY - 2018/2

Y1 - 2018/2

N2 - Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G. thermoglucosidans strains were acquired, with special attention given to carbohydrate utilization clusters and proteolytic enzymes. Focusing on traits relevant for dairy environments, comparative genomic analysis revealed that all G. thermoglucosidans strains lacked the genes necessary for lactose transport and metabolism, showed poor growth in skim milk, and produced white colonies on X-gal plates, indicating the lack of β-galactosidase activity. The A. flavithermus isolates scored positive in these tests, consistent with the presence of a putative lactose utilization gene cluster. All tested isolates from both species showed proteolytic activity on milk plate count agar plates. Adding glucose or galactose to liquid skim milk supported growth of G. thermoglucosidans isolates, in line with the presence of the respective monosaccharide utilization gene clusters in the genomes. Analysis by HPLC of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 culture filtrate indicated that the previously described growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans in skim milk was based on the supply of glucose and galactose by A. flavithermus TNO-09.006.

AB - Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G. thermoglucosidans strains were acquired, with special attention given to carbohydrate utilization clusters and proteolytic enzymes. Focusing on traits relevant for dairy environments, comparative genomic analysis revealed that all G. thermoglucosidans strains lacked the genes necessary for lactose transport and metabolism, showed poor growth in skim milk, and produced white colonies on X-gal plates, indicating the lack of β-galactosidase activity. The A. flavithermus isolates scored positive in these tests, consistent with the presence of a putative lactose utilization gene cluster. All tested isolates from both species showed proteolytic activity on milk plate count agar plates. Adding glucose or galactose to liquid skim milk supported growth of G. thermoglucosidans isolates, in line with the presence of the respective monosaccharide utilization gene clusters in the genomes. Analysis by HPLC of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 culture filtrate indicated that the previously described growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans in skim milk was based on the supply of glucose and galactose by A. flavithermus TNO-09.006.

KW - Symbiosis

KW - Thermophile

KW - Thermoresistant spore

U2 - 10.3168/jds.2017-13372

DO - 10.3168/jds.2017-13372

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 1013

EP - 1019

JO - Journal of Dairy Science

JF - Journal of Dairy Science

SN - 0022-0302

IS - 2

ER -