This paper presents the findings from an explorative study comparing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) against local realities for young people in Uganda. This was done by analysing statements by Ugandan adolescents extracted from focus group discussions relating to two SRHRs central in this research: (1) the right of young people to complete and accurate information; and (2) the right to self-determination. We found discrepancies between these universally formulated rights and the (political, economic and community) context young Ugandans live in. Consequently, we argue how comprehensive rights-based sex education should take this local reality into account to make SRHR meaningful for Ugandan adolescents. Implications for the content, form and context of comprehensive rights-based sex education are discussed.