Several short-day species can flower under blue-extended long days, but this response is not universal

Malleshaiah SharathKumar*, Jingwen Luo, Yu Xi, Wim van Ieperen, Leo F.M. Marcelis, Ep Heuvelink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Sole-source LED lighting enables spectral flexibility to achieve desirable plant characteristics and product quality. An earlier study from our lab showed that short-day plant chrysanthemum flowers normally under long days with dynamic lighting of 11 h dichromatic red-blue LED light extended with 4 h sole blue LED light. Such dynamic LED lighting is possible in vertical farms and opens the possibility to supply a higher daily light integral (DLI) to short-day plants by providing more hours of light and thus increase growth rate. This study aims to investigate for several short-day species whether normal flowering is obtained when 11 h of red-blue is extended with 4 h of sole blue LED light. Twelve genotypes of nine short-day plants species (kalanchoe - Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, perilla - Perilla frutescens, stevia - Stevia rebaudiana, artemisia - Artemisia annua, chrysanthemum - Chrysanthemum seticuspe and Chrysanthemum morifolium, cosmos - Cosmos bipinnatus, poinsettia - Poinsettia pulcherrima and wild tomato - Solanum habrochaites) were grown at three light conditions in a climate room: 11 h red-blue short day, 11 h red-blue extended with 4 h of sole blue, and 15 h red-blue long day. Mixed red and blue light (ratio 60:40) was provided at a total photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100 µmol m−2 s−1 and sole blue light was provided at 40 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD. Flowering response differed among species: kalanchoe, perilla and stevia flowered only in red-blue short day. Artemisia, chrysanthemum, cosmos, poinsettia, and wild tomato flowered in red-blue short day, and blue-extended long day but not in red-blue long day. However, there was a flowering delay in cosmos, poinsettia, and wild tomato under blue-extended long days compared to short days. In blue-extended long days plants received 15 % higher DLI resulting in a 4 to 36 % increase in total dry weight compared to short days. This study shows that increasing growth rate under light-limiting growth conditions through daylength-extension with sole blue light, without compromising flowering and quality, is possible for some, but not all short-day species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112657
JournalScientia Horticulturae
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Blue-extended long days
  • Flowering
  • LED-lighting
  • Photoperiodic flowering
  • Red-blue light
  • Short-day plants
  • Vertical farming


Dive into the research topics of 'Several short-day species can flower under blue-extended long days, but this response is not universal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this