Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cognitive executive function in Dutch prefrail and frail elderly: a cross-sectional study exploring the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism, cognitive performance and depression

E.M. Brouwer, O. Nieuwerth-van de Rest, C.A.B. Tieland, N.L. van der Zwaluw, W.T. Steegenga, J.J. Adam, L.J.C. van Loon, E.J.M. Feskens, C.P.G.M. de Groot

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Abstract

Objectives: The primary objective was to explore the possible association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) and vitamin D intake with markers of glucose metabolism, depression, and cognitive performance. In addition, we examined to what extent the associations between vitamin D and cognitive performance were modified or mediated by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study using data of 127 frail or prefrail Dutch elderly, aged 65 years or older. Frailty was defined according to the criteria of Fried and colleagues. A participant was classified prefrail when 1 to 2 criteria were met; frailty was classified as the presence of 3 or more criteria. Measurements: Associations of 25(OH) D and vitamin D intake with markers of glucose metabolism and domain-specific cognitive performance were examined by multivariable regression analyses. The possible association of vitamin D with depression and global cognitive performance was explored by Poisson regression. Results: No associations were observed for 25(OH) D with FPG, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), Homeostasis Model Assessment-estimated Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), or depression. In contrast, serum 25(OH) D was positively associated with executive functioning (beta 0.007, P=.01) and tended to be associated with information-processing speed (beta 0.006, P=.06). FPG did not modify or mediate these associations. Vitamin D intake was not associated with cognitive performance, glucose metabolism, or depression. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study suggests an association of serum 25(OH) D with domain-specific cognitive performance, in particular executive functioning and possibly information-processing speed, but not with FPG, FPI, HOMA-IR, or depression. Whether these associations are causal is yet to be demonstrated. Copyright (C) 2013 - American Medical Directors Association, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)852.e9-852.e17
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • randomized controlled-trial
  • vitamin-d supplementation
  • placebo-controlled trial
  • parathyroid-hormone
  • insulin-resistance
  • double-blind
  • older women
  • risk-factors
  • us adults
  • population

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