Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan

V.R. Monger, J.A. Stegeman, G. Koop, K. Dukpa, T. Tenzin, W.L.A. Loeffen

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15 Citations (Scopus)


A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Furthermore, risk factors for the seropositive status were investigated. Antibodies to SIV, subtype H1N1 (likely pandemic H1N1 2009) were detected in 49% of the pigs in the government farms, and 8% of the village backyard pigs. For PCV2, these percentages were 73% and 37% respectively. For CSFV, the percentages were closer together, with 62% and 52% respectively. It should be taken into consideration that vaccination of piglets is routine in the government herds, and that piglets distributed to backyard farms are also vaccinated. No direct evidence of CSFV infections was found, either by clinical signs or virus isolation. Antibodies to PRRSV and Aujeszky's disease, on the other hand, were not found at all. Risk factors found are mainly related to practices of swill feeding and other biosecurity measures. For CSFV, these were swill feeding (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01–4.99) and contact with neighbour's pigs (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.13–0.75). For PCV2 this was lending of boars for local breeding purposes (OR = 3.30, 95% CI: 1.43–7.59). The results of this study showed that PCV2 and SIV infections are important in pigs in Bhutan and thus appropriate control strategies need to be designed and applied which could involve strict regulation on the import of live pigs and vaccination against these diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-232
JournalPreventive Veterinary Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • classical swine-fever
  • influenza-a h1n1
  • vaccination policy
  • antigenic drift
  • virus
  • infection
  • diagnosis
  • prrs


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