Sequential fusion of information from two portable spectrometers for improved prediction of moisture and soluble solids content in pear fruit

Puneet Mishra*, Federico Marini, Bastiaan Brouwer, Jean Michel Roger, Alessandra Biancolillo, Ernst Woltering, Esther Hogeveen van Echtelt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy allows rapid estimation of quality traits in fresh fruit. Several portable spectrometers are available in the market as a low-cost solution to perform NIR spectroscopy. However, portable spectrometers, being lower in cost than a benchtop counterpart, do not cover the complete near infrared (NIR) spectral range. Often portable sensors either use silicon-based visible and NIR detector to cover 400–1000 nm, or InGaAs-based short wave infrared (SWIR) detector covering the 900–1700 nm. However, these two spectral regions carry complementary information, since the 400–1000 nm interval captures the color and 3rd overtones of most functional group vibrations, while the 1st and the 2nd overtones of the same transitions fall in the 1000–1700 nm range. To exploit such complementarity, sequential data fusion strategies were used to fuse the data from two portable spectrometers, i.e., Felix F750 (~400–1000 nm) and the DLP NIR Scan Nano (~900–1700 nm). In particular, two different sequential fusion approaches were used, namely sequential orthogonalized partial-least squares (SO-PLS) regression and sequential orthogonalized covariate selection (SO-CovSel). SO-PLS improved the prediction of moisture content (MC) and soluble solids content (SSC) in pear fruit, leading to an accuracy which was not obtainable with models built on any of the two spectral data set individually. Instead, SO-CovSel was used to select the key wavelengths from both the spectral ranges mostly correlated to quality parameters of pear fruit. Sequential fusion of the data from the two portable spectrometers led to an improved model prediction (higher R2 and lower RMSEP) of MC and SSC in pear fruit: compared to the models built with the DLP NIR Scan Nano (the worst individual block) where SO-PLS showed an increase in R2p up to 56% and a corresponding 47% decrease in RMSEP. Differences were less pronounced to the use of Felix data alone, but still the R2p was increased by 2.5% and the RMSEP was reduced by 6.5%. Sequential data fusion is not limited to NIR data but it can be considered as a general tool for integrating information from multiple sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121733
Issue numberPart 2
Early online date13 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Chemometrics
  • Miniature near infrared (NIR) spectrometers
  • Multi-block data analysis
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Pear (Pyrus communis L.)
  • Sequential data fusion


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