Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: Evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel

Erna J.Z. Krüsemann, Marlou P. Lasschuijt, C. de Graaf, René A. de Wijk, Pieter H. Punter, Loes van Tiel, Johannes W.J.M. Cremers, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Sanne Boesveldt, Reinskje Talhout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco [⋯]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. Methods: An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. Results: The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. Conclusions: An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour.

LanguageEnglish
Pages152-160
JournalTobacco Control
Volume28
Early online date23 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2019

Fingerprint

Tobacco Products
nicotine
expert
Tobacco
Smell
Vanilla
Menthol
Odorants
Principal Component Analysis
Canada
Cluster Analysis
Consensus
performance monitoring
jurisdiction
EU

Keywords

  • advertising and promotion
  • prevention
  • public policy

Cite this

Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Lasschuijt, Marlou P. ; de Graaf, C. ; de Wijk, René A. ; Punter, Pieter H. ; van Tiel, Loes ; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M. ; van de Nobelen, Suzanne ; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Talhout, Reinskje. / Sensory analysis of characterising flavours : Evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel. In: Tobacco Control. 2019 ; Vol. 28. pp. 152-160.
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abstract = "Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco [⋯]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. Methods: An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95{\%} and 99{\%} CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. Results: The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. Conclusions: An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour.",
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Sensory analysis of characterising flavours : Evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel. / Krüsemann, Erna J.Z.; Lasschuijt, Marlou P.; de Graaf, C.; de Wijk, René A.; Punter, Pieter H.; van Tiel, Loes; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M.; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje.

In: Tobacco Control, Vol. 28, 22.02.2019, p. 152-160.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sensory analysis of characterising flavours

T2 - Tobacco Control

AU - Krüsemann, Erna J.Z.

AU - Lasschuijt, Marlou P.

AU - de Graaf, C.

AU - de Wijk, René A.

AU - Punter, Pieter H.

AU - van Tiel, Loes

AU - Cremers, Johannes W.J.M.

AU - van de Nobelen, Suzanne

AU - Boesveldt, Sanne

AU - Talhout, Reinskje

PY - 2019/2/22

Y1 - 2019/2/22

N2 - Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco [⋯]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. Methods: An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. Results: The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. Conclusions: An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour.

AB - Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco [⋯]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. Methods: An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. Results: The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. Conclusions: An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour.

KW - advertising and promotion

KW - prevention

KW - public policy

U2 - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054152

DO - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054152

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 152

EP - 160

JO - Tobacco Control

JF - Tobacco Control

SN - 0964-4563

ER -