Arthropod-borne diseases and ectoparasite infestation of livestock remain a serious veterinary and economic problem worldwide. Furthermore, nuisance biting by haematophagous arthropods can result in a significant disruption to livestock behaviour and production. Existing tools for managing pest arthropods have so far not been successful in providing elimination or effective control of many pest arthropod species. The rapid emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and the on-going burden of those currently circulating mean that the need to develop new tools and interventions for pest management is urgent. A vast array of host-derived, arthropod-derived and environmental semiochemicals regulate the behaviour of pest arthropods and, therefore, many of these present promising targets for control interventions. This chapter details the principles of semiochemical-based approaches to arthropod surveillance and control and the major arthropod behavioural targets (host-seeking, sugar-feeding and oviposition/larviposition behaviour) that need to be understood to enable successful interventions to take place. The chapter then reviews current progress towards semiochemical-based approaches for the surveillance and control of major arthropod pests: tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae), black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), horn flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae), and ticks (Ixodida: Ixodoidea).