Within Streptococcus suis serotype 2, pathogenic, weakly pathogenic, and nonpathogenic strains can be found. We introduced a genomic library of a pathogenic strain into a weakly pathogenic strain. After infection of the library into young piglets pathogenic transformants were selected. One specific transformant containing a 3-kb fragment of the pathogenic strain appeared to be dominantly enriched in diseased pigs. The observed enrichment was not tissue specific. The selected fragment, when introduced into two different weakly pathogenic strains, increased the virulence of these strains considerably. In contrast, introduction of the corresponding fragment of a weakly pathogenic strain had only minor effects on virulence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the selected fragment of the pathogenic strain revealed the presence of two potential open reading frames, both of which were found to be mutated in the corresponding fragment of the weakly pathogenic strain. These data strongly suggest that the selected fragment contains determinants important for virulence.