To investigate the characteristics of selection for levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus, the consecutive nematode generations of an in vivo selection were monitored with a newly developed egg-hatch assay. The in vivo selection was started with a population not previously exposed to any anthelmintics (SHS). At first, the levamisole resistance progressed gradually in successive nematode generations by treating sheep with increasing doses of levamisole, the initial dose being I rag kg-1. Treatment with 5mgkg-1 levamisole resulted, however, in a steep increase of resistance. The selection was ended after six generations, since a level of 30 mg kg-1 levamisole, which is not far from the toxic level for sheep, was reached. The final population, RHS6, was studied in a controlled test. Treatment of RHS6-infected sheep with 30 mg kg-1 levamisole caused an 80% decrease of faecal egg output, and a reduction of 34% in worm numbers. It was remarkable that only the number of female adults was reduced. RHS6 showed a reduced viability, but a fertility similar to the starting population SHS.
Hoekstra, R., Borgsteede, F. H. M., Boersema, J. H., & Roos, M. H. (1997). Selection for high levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus monitored with an egg-hatch assay. International Journal for Parasitology, 27(11), 1395-1400. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00126-4