Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill

A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

J. Peeters*, F.S. Busschers, E. Stouthamer, J.H.A. Bosch, M.W. Van den Berg, J. Wallinga, A.J. Versendaal, F.P.M. Bunnik, H. Middelkoop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented here.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-236
Number of pages26
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume131
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

Fingerprint

incised valley
valley fill
chronostratigraphy
Eemian
sea level
Netherlands
valleys
interglacial
Pleistocene
case studies
Weichselian
progradation
glacial deposits
sediment deposition
transgressive segregation
luminescence
Saalian
coolers
luminescence dating
marine isotope stage

Keywords

  • Delta
  • Eemian interglacial
  • Estuary
  • Glacio-isostasy
  • Incised-valley
  • Luminescence dating
  • Palaeogeography
  • Preservation
  • Sea level

Cite this

Peeters, J. ; Busschers, F.S. ; Stouthamer, E. ; Bosch, J.H.A. ; Van den Berg, M.W. ; Wallinga, J. ; Versendaal, A.J. ; Bunnik, F.P.M. ; Middelkoop, H. / Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands. In: Quaternary Science Reviews. 2016 ; Vol. 131. pp. 211-236.
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abstract = "This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented here.",
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Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands. / Peeters, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J.H.A.; Van den Berg, M.W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A.J.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Middelkoop, H.

In: Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 131, 01.01.2016, p. 211-236.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill

T2 - A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

AU - Peeters, J.

AU - Busschers, F.S.

AU - Stouthamer, E.

AU - Bosch, J.H.A.

AU - Van den Berg, M.W.

AU - Wallinga, J.

AU - Versendaal, A.J.

AU - Bunnik, F.P.M.

AU - Middelkoop, H.

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented here.

AB - This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented here.

KW - Delta

KW - Eemian interglacial

KW - Estuary

KW - Glacio-isostasy

KW - Incised-valley

KW - Luminescence dating

KW - Palaeogeography

KW - Preservation

KW - Sea level

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DO - 10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.10.015

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EP - 236

JO - Quaternary Science Reviews

JF - Quaternary Science Reviews

SN - 0277-3791

ER -