Scientific Opinion on Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed

T. Beuerle, D. Benford, L. Brimer, B. Cottrill, D. Doerge, B. Dusemund, P. Farmer, P. Fürst, H. Humpf, P.P.J. Mulder

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademic

145 Citations (Scopus)


The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs) in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread Claviceps species within the Hypocreales. A total of 20 558 analytical results for EAs in 1 716 food, 496 feed and 67 unprocessed grain samples were considered in this opinion. Based on the EAs identified in sclerotia of C. purpurea, and recent literature data, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) based its risk assessment on the main C. purpurea EAs, namely ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine (which is a mixture of a- and ß- isomers), ergocornine, and the corresponding –inine epimers. The CONTAM Panel performed estimates of both chronic and acute exposure for various age groups across European countries. BMDL10 of 0.33 mg/kg b.w. per day was calculated for the incidence of tail muscular atrophy in a 13-week rat feeding study of ergotamine. This effect was considered representative of the vasoconstrictive effects of EAs and provided a suitable reference point for establishment of a group acute reference dose of 1 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) and a group tolerable daily intake of 0.6 µg/kg b.w. per day. The Panel concluded that whilst the available data do not indicate a concern for any population subgroup, the dietary exposure estimates relate to a limited number of food groups and a possible unknown contribution from other foods cannot be discounted. Estimates of exposure for livestock based on example diet
Original languageEnglish
Article number2406
Pages (from-to)1-134
Number of pages134
JournalEFSA Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


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