Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

S.J. Boeke, M.G. Boersma, G.M. Alink, J.J.A. van Loon, A. van Huis, M. Dicke, I.M.C.M. Rietjens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 g/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 l/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-41
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume94
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Azadirachta
Poisons
Pesticides
Safety
Insecticides
Seeds
Toxicology
Ulcer
Reproduction
Oral Administration
Insects
Blood Glucose
Mammals
Oils
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Eating
Food
Health

Keywords

  • nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine
  • buccal pouch carcinogenesis
  • leaf extracts
  • gastric carcinogenesis
  • blood-constituents
  • seed extract
  • male-rats
  • oil
  • toxicity
  • praneem

Cite this

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title = "Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides",
abstract = "The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 g/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 l/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.",
keywords = "nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine, buccal pouch carcinogenesis, leaf extracts, gastric carcinogenesis, blood-constituents, seed extract, male-rats, oil, toxicity, praneem",
author = "S.J. Boeke and M.G. Boersma and G.M. Alink and {van Loon}, J.J.A. and {van Huis}, A. and M. Dicke and I.M.C.M. Rietjens",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.011",
language = "English",
volume = "94",
pages = "25--41",
journal = "Journal of Ethnopharmacology",
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Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. / Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; van Huis, A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2004, p. 25-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

AU - Boeke, S.J.

AU - Boersma, M.G.

AU - Alink, G.M.

AU - van Loon, J.J.A.

AU - van Huis, A.

AU - Dicke, M.

AU - Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 g/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 l/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.

AB - The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 g/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 l/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.

KW - nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine

KW - buccal pouch carcinogenesis

KW - leaf extracts

KW - gastric carcinogenesis

KW - blood-constituents

KW - seed extract

KW - male-rats

KW - oil

KW - toxicity

KW - praneem

U2 - 10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.011

DO - 10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.011

M3 - Review article

VL - 94

SP - 25

EP - 41

JO - Journal of Ethnopharmacology

JF - Journal of Ethnopharmacology

SN - 0378-8741

IS - 1

ER -