RXLR effector diversity in Phytophthora infestans isolates determines recognition by potato resistance proteins; the case study AVR1 and R1

Y. Du, R. Weide, Z. Zhao, P. Msimuko, F. Govers, K. Bouwmeester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Late blight disease caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting factors in potato production. P. infestans is able to overcome introgressed late blight resistance by adaptation of effector genes. AVR1 is an RXLR effector that triggers immune responses when recognized by the potato resistance protein R1. P. infestans isolates avirulent on R1 plants were found to have AVR1 variants that are recognized by R1. Virulent isolates though, lack AVR1 but do contain a close homologue of AVR1, named A-L, of which all variants escape recognition by R1. Co-expression of AVR1 and R1 in Nicotiana benthamiana results in a hypersensitive response (HR). In contrast, HR is not activated when A-L is co-expressed with R1. AVR1 and A-L are highly similar in structure. They share two W motifs and one Y motif in the C-terminal part but differ in the T-region, a 38 amino acid extension at the carboxyl-terminal tail of AVR1 lacking in A-L. To pinpoint what determines R1-mediated recognition of AVR1 we tested elicitor activity of AVR1 and A-L chimeric and deletion constructs by co-expression with R1. The T-region is important as it enables R1-mediated recognition of A-L, not only when fused to A-L but also via trans-complementation. Yet, AVR1 lacking the T-region is still active as an elicitor of HR, but this activity is lost when certain motifs are swapped with A-L. These data show that A-L circumvents R1 recognition not only because it lacks the T-region, but also because of differences in the conserved C-terminal effector motifs.
LanguageEnglish
Pages85-93
JournalStudies in Mycology
Volume89
Early online date1 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

Fingerprint

Phytophthora infestans
Solanum tuberosum
potatoes
case studies
hypersensitive response
Oomycetes
Plant Diseases
Proteins
proteins
Tobacco
avirulent strains
Nicotiana benthamiana
Amino Acids
tail
Genes
immune response
amino acids
pathogens
genes

Keywords

  • Effector variation
  • Effector-triggered immunity (ETI)
  • Host defence
  • Late blight disease
  • Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein
  • Potato resistance

Cite this

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title = "RXLR effector diversity in Phytophthora infestans isolates determines recognition by potato resistance proteins; the case study AVR1 and R1",
abstract = "Late blight disease caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting factors in potato production. P. infestans is able to overcome introgressed late blight resistance by adaptation of effector genes. AVR1 is an RXLR effector that triggers immune responses when recognized by the potato resistance protein R1. P. infestans isolates avirulent on R1 plants were found to have AVR1 variants that are recognized by R1. Virulent isolates though, lack AVR1 but do contain a close homologue of AVR1, named A-L, of which all variants escape recognition by R1. Co-expression of AVR1 and R1 in Nicotiana benthamiana results in a hypersensitive response (HR). In contrast, HR is not activated when A-L is co-expressed with R1. AVR1 and A-L are highly similar in structure. They share two W motifs and one Y motif in the C-terminal part but differ in the T-region, a 38 amino acid extension at the carboxyl-terminal tail of AVR1 lacking in A-L. To pinpoint what determines R1-mediated recognition of AVR1 we tested elicitor activity of AVR1 and A-L chimeric and deletion constructs by co-expression with R1. The T-region is important as it enables R1-mediated recognition of A-L, not only when fused to A-L but also via trans-complementation. Yet, AVR1 lacking the T-region is still active as an elicitor of HR, but this activity is lost when certain motifs are swapped with A-L. These data show that A-L circumvents R1 recognition not only because it lacks the T-region, but also because of differences in the conserved C-terminal effector motifs.",
keywords = "Effector variation, Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), Host defence, Late blight disease, Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein, Potato resistance",
author = "Y. Du and R. Weide and Z. Zhao and P. Msimuko and F. Govers and K. Bouwmeester",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.simyco.2018.01.003",
language = "English",
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journal = "Studies in Mycology",
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RXLR effector diversity in Phytophthora infestans isolates determines recognition by potato resistance proteins; the case study AVR1 and R1. / Du, Y.; Weide, R.; Zhao, Z.; Msimuko, P.; Govers, F.; Bouwmeester, K.

In: Studies in Mycology, Vol. 89, 03.2018, p. 85-93.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - RXLR effector diversity in Phytophthora infestans isolates determines recognition by potato resistance proteins; the case study AVR1 and R1

AU - Du, Y.

AU - Weide, R.

AU - Zhao, Z.

AU - Msimuko, P.

AU - Govers, F.

AU - Bouwmeester, K.

PY - 2018/3

Y1 - 2018/3

N2 - Late blight disease caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting factors in potato production. P. infestans is able to overcome introgressed late blight resistance by adaptation of effector genes. AVR1 is an RXLR effector that triggers immune responses when recognized by the potato resistance protein R1. P. infestans isolates avirulent on R1 plants were found to have AVR1 variants that are recognized by R1. Virulent isolates though, lack AVR1 but do contain a close homologue of AVR1, named A-L, of which all variants escape recognition by R1. Co-expression of AVR1 and R1 in Nicotiana benthamiana results in a hypersensitive response (HR). In contrast, HR is not activated when A-L is co-expressed with R1. AVR1 and A-L are highly similar in structure. They share two W motifs and one Y motif in the C-terminal part but differ in the T-region, a 38 amino acid extension at the carboxyl-terminal tail of AVR1 lacking in A-L. To pinpoint what determines R1-mediated recognition of AVR1 we tested elicitor activity of AVR1 and A-L chimeric and deletion constructs by co-expression with R1. The T-region is important as it enables R1-mediated recognition of A-L, not only when fused to A-L but also via trans-complementation. Yet, AVR1 lacking the T-region is still active as an elicitor of HR, but this activity is lost when certain motifs are swapped with A-L. These data show that A-L circumvents R1 recognition not only because it lacks the T-region, but also because of differences in the conserved C-terminal effector motifs.

AB - Late blight disease caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting factors in potato production. P. infestans is able to overcome introgressed late blight resistance by adaptation of effector genes. AVR1 is an RXLR effector that triggers immune responses when recognized by the potato resistance protein R1. P. infestans isolates avirulent on R1 plants were found to have AVR1 variants that are recognized by R1. Virulent isolates though, lack AVR1 but do contain a close homologue of AVR1, named A-L, of which all variants escape recognition by R1. Co-expression of AVR1 and R1 in Nicotiana benthamiana results in a hypersensitive response (HR). In contrast, HR is not activated when A-L is co-expressed with R1. AVR1 and A-L are highly similar in structure. They share two W motifs and one Y motif in the C-terminal part but differ in the T-region, a 38 amino acid extension at the carboxyl-terminal tail of AVR1 lacking in A-L. To pinpoint what determines R1-mediated recognition of AVR1 we tested elicitor activity of AVR1 and A-L chimeric and deletion constructs by co-expression with R1. The T-region is important as it enables R1-mediated recognition of A-L, not only when fused to A-L but also via trans-complementation. Yet, AVR1 lacking the T-region is still active as an elicitor of HR, but this activity is lost when certain motifs are swapped with A-L. These data show that A-L circumvents R1 recognition not only because it lacks the T-region, but also because of differences in the conserved C-terminal effector motifs.

KW - Effector variation

KW - Effector-triggered immunity (ETI)

KW - Host defence

KW - Late blight disease

KW - Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein

KW - Potato resistance

U2 - 10.1016/j.simyco.2018.01.003

DO - 10.1016/j.simyco.2018.01.003

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 85

EP - 93

JO - Studies in Mycology

T2 - Studies in Mycology

JF - Studies in Mycology

SN - 0166-0616

ER -