Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

E.K. Bekedam, M.J. Loots, H.A. Schols, M.A.J.S. van Boekel, G. Smit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their melanoidin, nitrogen, protein, phenolic groups, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and sugar content. It was found that the melanoidin level in all fractions correlated with both the nitrogen and the protein content. The melanoidin level also correlated with the phenolic groups¿ level and ester-linked quinic acid level. It was concluded that proteins and chlorogenic acids should be primarily involved in melanoidin formation. Initial roasting, from green to light-roasted beans, especially led to the formation of intermediate Mw (IMw) melanoidins when compared to high Mw (HMw) melanoidins. Indications were found that this IMw melanoidin formation is mainly due to Maillard reactions and chlorogenic acid incorporation reactions between chlorogenic acids, sucrose, and amino acids/protein fragments. Additionally, it was found that prolonged roasting predominantly led to formation melanoidins with a high Mw. Furthermore, arabinogalactans seem to be relatively more involved in melanoidin formation than galactomannans. It was hypothesized that chromophores may be formed or attached through the arabinose moiety of arabinogalactan proteins (AGP). Finally, it could be concluded that galactomannans are continuously incorporated in AGP-melanoidins upon roasting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7138-7145
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • molecular-weight melanoidins
  • zinc-chelating substance
  • chemical-characterization
  • antioxidant activity
  • liquid-chromatography
  • beverages
  • beans
  • green
  • acids
  • food


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