Risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission between free-ranging animals and captive mink in the Netherlands

Reina S. Sikkema*, Lineke Begeman, René Janssen, Wendy J. Wolters, Corine Geurtsvankessel, Erwin de Bruin, Renate W. Hakze-van der Honing, Phaedra Eblé, Wim H.M. van der Poel, Judith M.A. van den Brand, Roy Slaterus, Maurice La Haye, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Francisca Velkers, Thijs Kuiken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In the Netherlands, 69 of the 126 (55%) mink farms in total became infected with SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Despite strict biosecurity measures and extensive epidemiological investigations, the main transmission route remained unclear. A better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission between mink farms is of relevance for countries where mink farming is still common practice and can be used as a case study to improve future emerging disease preparedness. We assessed whether SARS-CoV-2 spilled over from mink to free-ranging animals, and whether free-ranging animals may have played a role in farm-to-farm transmission in the Netherlands. The study encompassed farm visits, farm questionnaires, expert workshops and SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibody testing of samples from target animal species (bats, birds and free-ranging carnivores). In this study, we show that the open housing system of mink allowed access to birds, bats and most free-ranging carnivores, and that direct and indirect contact with mink was likely after entry, especially for free-ranging carnivores and birds. This allowed SARS-CoV-2 exposure to animals entering the mink farm, and subsequent infection or mechanical carriage by the target animal species. Moreover, mink can escape farms in some cases, and two SARS-CoV-2-positive mink were found outside farm premises. No other SARS-CoV-2-RNA-positive free-ranging animals were detected, suggesting there was no abundant circulation in the species tested during the study period. To investigate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection using lung extracts of carcasses was set up and validated. One tested beech marten did have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, but the closest SARS-CoV-2-infected mink farm was outside of its home range, making infection at a mink farm unlikely. Knowing that virus exchange between different species and the formation of animal reservoirs affects SARS-CoV-2 evolution, continued vigilance and monitoring of mink farms and surrounding wildlife remains vital.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3339-3349
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number6
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • animal husbandry
  • mustelids
  • One Health
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • transmission
  • wildlife


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