Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case–control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed with a positive bacteriologic culture for serovar Typhimurium in one or more samples. Serovar Typhimurium phage type 401 and 506 (definitive type 104, DT104) were the most frequently isolated phage types (13 isolates). On most farms (66Œ clinical signs were seen only among adult cows. The most frequently reported clinical signs were diarrhoea (in 92 f the farms) and depression (in 79 f the farms). Control farms were matched on region and had no history of salmonellosis. A questionnaire was used to collect data on case and control farms. The relationship between serovar Typhimurium status of the farm and possible risk factors was tested using conditional logistic regression. Significant factors in the final model were presence of cats on the farm (OR=0.06), purchase of manure (OR=21.5), feeding colostrum only from own dam (OR=0.08), a non-seasonal calving pattern (OR=25), unrestricted grazing of lactating cows (OR=0.07), and a high mean mowing percentage of pasture (OR=1.02).