Risk-based and adaptive invasive mosquito surveillance at lucky bamboo and used tire importers in the netherlands

Adolfo Ibanez-Justicia*, Sander Koenraadt, Arjan Stroo, Ron van Lammeren, Willem Takken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The detection of Aedes albopictus in Lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana) greenhouses and Ae. atropalpus at used tire importers illustrates that the Netherlands is exposed to the risk of introductions of invasive mosquito species (IMS). In this study we implemented a risk-based and adaptive surveillance (2010-16) in order to detect introductions and prevent potential proliferation of IMS at these locations. Results at Lucky bamboo greenhouses show that interceptions of Ae. albopictus occurred every year, with 2010 and 2012 being the years with most locations found positive for this species (n = 6), and 2015 the year with the highest percentage of positive samples (4.1%). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that Ae. japonicus can also be associated with the import of Lucky bamboo. At used tire companies, IMS were found at 12 locations. Invasive mosquito species identified were Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. japonicus, of which Ae. albopictus has been found every year since 2010. The proportion of samples containing IMS was significantly higher before application of a covenant between the used tire importers and the Dutch government in 2013 (12.96%) than in the successive 3 years (2014 [6.93%], 2015 [4.24%], 2016 [5.09%], 1-sided binomial test, P , 0.01). It is concluded that risk-based and adaptive surveillance is an effective methodology for detection of IMS, and that application of governmental management measures in combination with mosquito control has stabilized the situation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-98
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Aedes
  • Import
  • Invasive mosquito species
  • National policy
  • Vector control


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