Risk assessment of Sika deer Cervus nippon in the Netherlands

D.R. Lammertsma, G.W.T.A. Groot Bruinderink, A.J. Griffioen

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) is considered an invasive alien species in Europe. They were introduced in the 19th and 20th century in Europe and have established self-sustaining populations in various countries. Main concerns for Sika, without preventive measures taken and without population control, are about damage to forestry (silviculture, timber production), agriculture, Natura 2000 areas, competition with native ungulates and hybridization and introgression with native Red Deer. Risk assessment for Sika Deer in this study was done using two methods assuming no human intervention (no preventive measures, no population control).
Original languageDutch
Place of PublicationWageningen
PublisherAlterra, Wageningen-UR
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Publication series

PublisherAlterra Wageningen UR
ISSN (Print)1566-7197


  • cervus nippon
  • invasive species
  • risk assessment
  • ecological risk assessment
  • risk management
  • forest damage
  • crop damage
  • animal competition
  • introduced species
  • netherlands

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