The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases, Y-27632, was recently reported to immortalize neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the potential use of Y-27632 to expand human adult keratinocytes and evaluated its effects on HSE development and in vitro gene delivery assays. Y-27632 was found to significantly increase the life span of human adult keratinocytes (up to five to eight passages). The epidermal morphology of HSEs generated from high-passage, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes resembled the native epidermis and was improved by supplementing Y-27632 during the submerged phase of HSE development. In addition, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes responded normally to inflammatory stimuli, and could be used to generate HSEs with a psoriatic phenotype, upon stimulation with relevant cytokines. Furthermore, Y-27632 significantly enhanced both lentiviral transduction efficiency of primary adult keratinocytes and epidermal morphology of HSEs generated thereof. Our study indicates that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful tool that is used for a variety of applications of adult human keratinocytes.