Rework Potential of Soy and Pea Protein Isolates in High-Moisture Extrusion

Silvia J.E. Snel, Yasmine Amroussi, Atze Jan van der Goot, Michael Beyrer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


High-moisture extrusion (HME) is an effective process to make fibrous products that can be used as meat analogues. In this study, the effect of extrusion of already extruded products (i.e., re-extrusion) was tested with the aim to explore the potential of rework in HME. The rework of material is important because it is a route to reduce waste, which is always produced, for example during the start or at the end of a production run. Pea and soy protein isolates (PPI and SPI) were first extruded, then freeze-dried and ground, and extruded again. The visual and textural properties of the fibrous products were evaluated. Also, the rheological properties, solubility, and water-holding capacity (WHC) of the ingredients and the products after the first and second extrusion were quantified. The obtained freeze-dried powders after the first HME cycle had a reduction in solubility of 15% for PPI and 74% for SPI. Furthermore, WHC was reduced by 65% and 17% for PPI and SPI, respectively. After the second HME cycle, the reduction in solubility and WHC was augmented to 22% and 90% for PPI, and 79% and 63% for SPI. No effect on stock and loss moduli after heating and cooling were found, even after two HME cycles. SPI fibrous products did not differ in cutting strength, anisotropy index, or visual appearance after re-extrusion. Only, a decrease in hardness was detected, from 62.0 N to 51.1 N. For PPI, re-extrusion did reduce the cutting force and hardness but not the anisotropy index. It was concluded that even though HME induces a loss of solubility and WHC, this did not affect the fibrous texture formation of the protein. This means that the texture formed during HME does not depend on the process history and that rework is thus possible for fibrous products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2543
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • anisotropy
  • Lissajous plot
  • meat analogues
  • plant protein
  • rheology
  • solubility


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