Review of approaches to establish reference levels to interpret indicators

C.M. van der Heide, F.M. Brouwer, S. Bellon, C. Bockstaller, G. Garrod

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


The report clarifies the terminology relevant for understanding ‘reference levels’ for the various domains of sustainable development. Terminology on reference levels is very much linked to the environmental domain and much less so to the social and economic domains. Also, absolute and relative levels of ‘reference levels’ are explored. Relative performance or benchmark has gained interest in the scientific literature. Trade-offs may exist and choices may have to be made in practical cases
Original languageEnglish
Place of Publication[S.l.]
Number of pages44
ISBN (Print)9789085851189
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Publication series

NameRapport / Seamless


  • development
  • sustainability
  • reference standards
  • risk
  • uncertainty
  • agricultural policy
  • sustainable development

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