Responses of zooplankton in lufenuron-stressed experimental ditches in the presence or absence of uncontaminated refuges

P. López-Mancisidor, P.J. van den Brink, S.J.H. Crum, S.J. Maund, G. Carbonell, T.C.M. Brock

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16 Citations (Scopus)


Outdoor experimental ditches were used to evaluate the influence of untreated refuges on the recovery of zooplankton communities following treatment with the fast-dissipating insecticide lufenuron. Each experimental ditch was divided into three sections of the same surface area. The treatments differed in the proportion of ditch (0, 33, 67, and 100% of the surface area) to which the insecticide was applied at the same nominal treatment (3 mu g/L). During the first week postapplication, a barrier was placed between treated and untreated ditch sections. The untreated sections were included to provide a source of organisms for recovery of affected zooplankton populations in the treated sections of the ditch after the removal of the barrier. Cyclopoida were the most affected by lufenuron treatment, followed by Daphnia gr. galeata. These and other direct effects of treatment on larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus spp. resulted in clear indirect effects on populations of Calanoida, Ceriodaphnia, and Rotifera. Overall, faster recovery of the zooplankton community was observed in the treated sections of ditches that were sprayed for a smaller proportion of their surface area. Nevertheless, individual zooplankton populations showed considerable differences in rate of recovery. Cyclopoida showed a relatively slow rate of recovery even in the partially treated ditches. Daphnia gr. galeata recovered more rapidly in treated ditch sections in the presence of unsprayed ditch sections, illustrating the potential influence of unexposed refuges. Furthermore, the presence of refuges most likely dampened the magnitude and duration of indirect effects in the ditches treated with lufenuron.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1317-1331
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • neem azadirachtin insecticide
  • ecological risk-assessment
  • community responses
  • experimental ponds
  • keratella-cochlearis
  • freshwater ponds
  • aquatic mesocosm
  • dursban(r) 4e
  • recovery
  • competition


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