Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

E. Tuladhar, W.C. Hazeleger, M. Koopmans, M.H. Zwietering, R.R. Beumer, E. Duizer

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43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7769-7775
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume78
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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Keywords

  • round structured viruses
  • hepatitis-a virus
  • real-time pcr
  • murine norovirus
  • feline calicivirus
  • enteric viruses
  • environmental contamination
  • inanimate surfaces
  • human hands
  • outbreak

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