Release of major peanut allergens from their matrix under various pH and simulated saliva conditions—Ara h2 and ara h6 are readily bio-accessible

Stef J. Koppelman, Mieke Smits, Monic Tomassen, Govardus A.H. De Jong, Joe Baumert, Steve L. Taylor, Renger Witkamp, Robert Jan Veldman, Raymond Pieters, Harry Wichers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20%) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100% and 65%, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1281
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sep 2018

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allergens
saliva
Saliva
Allergens
peanuts
Eating
peanut flour
digestive tract mucosa
ingestion
peanut protein
Food
allergenicity
protein solubility
Mouth Mucosa
Flour
Solubility
Mouth
Arachis
mouth
Buffers

Keywords

  • Allergen
  • Arachis hypogaea
  • Bio-accessibility
  • Peanut
  • Saliva

Cite this

Koppelman, Stef J. ; Smits, Mieke ; Tomassen, Monic ; De Jong, Govardus A.H. ; Baumert, Joe ; Taylor, Steve L. ; Witkamp, Renger ; Veldman, Robert Jan ; Pieters, Raymond ; Wichers, Harry. / Release of major peanut allergens from their matrix under various pH and simulated saliva conditions—Ara h2 and ara h6 are readily bio-accessible. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 9.
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abstract = "The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20{\%}) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100{\%} and 65{\%}, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity.",
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Release of major peanut allergens from their matrix under various pH and simulated saliva conditions—Ara h2 and ara h6 are readily bio-accessible. / Koppelman, Stef J.; Smits, Mieke; Tomassen, Monic; De Jong, Govardus A.H.; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L.; Witkamp, Renger; Veldman, Robert Jan; Pieters, Raymond; Wichers, Harry.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1281, 11.09.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Release of major peanut allergens from their matrix under various pH and simulated saliva conditions—Ara h2 and ara h6 are readily bio-accessible

AU - Koppelman, Stef J.

AU - Smits, Mieke

AU - Tomassen, Monic

AU - De Jong, Govardus A.H.

AU - Baumert, Joe

AU - Taylor, Steve L.

AU - Witkamp, Renger

AU - Veldman, Robert Jan

AU - Pieters, Raymond

AU - Wichers, Harry

PY - 2018/9/11

Y1 - 2018/9/11

N2 - The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20%) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100% and 65%, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity.

AB - The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20%) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100% and 65%, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity.

KW - Allergen

KW - Arachis hypogaea

KW - Bio-accessibility

KW - Peanut

KW - Saliva

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