Release of lipoxygenase products and monoterpenes by tomato plants as an indicator of Botrytis cinerea-induced stress

R.M.C. Jansen, M. Miebach, E. Kleist, E.J. van Henten, J. Wildt

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39 Citations (Scopus)


Changes in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tomato induced by the fungus Botrytis cinerea were studied in plants inoculated by spraying with suspensions containing B. cinerea spores. VOC emissions were analysed using on-line gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, with a time resolution of about 1 h, for up to 2 days after spraying. Four phases were delimited according to the starting point and the applied day/night rhythm of the experiments. These phases were used to demonstrate changes in VOC flux caused by B. cinerea infestation. Tomato plants inoculated with B. cinerea emitted a different number and amount of VOCs after inoculation compared to control plants that had been sprayed with a suspension without B. cinerea spores. The changes in emissions were dependent on time after inoculation as well as on the severity of infection. The predominant VOCs emitted after inoculation were volatile products from the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products). The increased emission of LOX products proved to be a strong indicator of a stress response, indicating that VOC emissions can be used to detect plant stress at an early stage. Besides emission of LOX products, there were also increases in monoterpene emissions. However, neither increased emission of LOX products nor of monoterpenes is specific for B. cinerea attack. The emission of LOX products is also induced by other stresses, and increased emission of monoterpenes seems to be the result of mechanical damage induced by secondary stress impacts on leaves
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-868
JournalPlant Biology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • volatile organic-compounds
  • indirect defenses
  • fungal pathogen
  • cotton plants
  • voc emissions
  • temperature
  • resistance
  • leaves
  • light
  • expression

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