Regional level risk factors associated with the occurrence of African swine fever in West and East Africa

Zheng Y.X. Huang*, Frank van Langevelde, Karanina J. Honer, Marc Naguib, Willem F. de Boer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: African swine fever (ASF) causes severe socio-economic impacts due to high mortality and trade restrictions. Many risk factors of ASF have been identified at farm level. However, understanding the risk factors, especially wild suid hosts, determining ASF transmission at regional level remains limited. Methods: Based on ASF outbreak data in domestic pigs during 2006-2014, we here tested, separately for West and East Africa, which risk factors were linked to ASF presence at a regional level, using generalized linear mixed models. Results: Our results show that ASF infections in the preceding year was an important predictor for ASF presence in both West and East Africa. Both pig density and human density were positively associated with ASF presence in West Africa. In East Africa, ASF outbreaks in domestic pigs were also correlated with higher percentages of areas occupied by giant forest hogs and by high-tick-risk areas. Conclusions: Our results suggest that regional ASF risk in East Africa and in West Africa were associated with different sets of risk factors. Regional ASF risk in West Africa mainly followed the domestic cycle, whereas the sylvatic cycle may influence regional ASF risk in East Africa. With these findings, we contribute to the better understanding of the risk factors of ASF occurrence at regional scales that may aid the implementation of effective control measures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
JournalParasites & Vectors
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Domestic cycle
  • Giant forest HOG
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Ornithodoros moubata
  • Sylvatic cycle
  • Wild suid


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