A prerequisite for the development of a successful transformation system is the availability of efficient regeneration systems. Up to 1995 the only available regeneration system in cassava was an organized type of somatic embryogenesis. Transformation of these organized somatic embryogenic cultures with particle bombardment or Agrobacterium tumefaciens resulted in chimeric transformed embryos. However, the transformed sector was lost after repeated cycles of secondary somatic embryogenesis. After 1995 a less organized system of somatic embryogenesis was developed, so called friable embryogenic callus (FEC) and a system of adventitious shoot regeneration. The FEC regeneration system was combined successfully with particle bombardment. Selection of transgenic plants was based on either luciferase activity, or resistance to the aminoglycoside paromomycin or the herbicide phosphinothricin. Furthermore, protoplasts of FEC are able to regenerate into plants and can be transformed by electroporation. The adventitious shoot regeneration system was combined successfully with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For this mature somatic embryos were cocultivated with Agrobacterium and cultured for adventitious shoot development. After selection based on the aminoglycoside geneticin or on hygromycin transgenic plants were formed.