The agricultural sector in the Netherlands can be seen as an exemplary success of modernization, especially after its take-off phase following World War II (Bieleman 2000). Yet it has also experienced increasing pressures and criticism, already since the early 70s (Grin 2010), when the ﬁ rst sideeff ects of its success-overproduction, emissions, biodiversity losses and overfertilization by manure-surfaced to become important environmental and societal issues. Whereas overproduction was tackled by EU regulation, the manure issue is still largely unresolved. Because of the environmental side eff ects, the Dutch agricultural system reached its critical point in the 1990s. According to Grin (2010: 263), this period can be regarded as a turning point, marking the take-off phase of a transition triggered by the side-eff ects of ‘simple modernization’. Dutch livestock production ﬁ ts very well into this general pattern of pressures and changes in agriculture. A series of dramatic epidemics (classical swine fever in 1997; foot-and-mouth disease in 2001; avian inﬂ uenza in 2003) as well as some major food scares-in particular the BSE crisis of 1997-resulted in the public framing of the Dutch livestock production sector as a disease-prone industry with disrespect for animals.
|Title of host publication||Food Practices in Transition|
|Subtitle of host publication||Changing Food Consumption, Retail and Production in the Age of Reflexive Modernity|
|Editors||G. Spaargaren, P. Oosterveer, A. Loeber|
|Place of Publication||London|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
|Name||Routledge studies in sustainability transitions|