Refined hazard characterization of 3-MCPD using benchmark dose modeling

I.M.C.M. Rietjens, G. Scholz, I. van den Berg, B. Schilter, W. Slob

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD)-esters represent a newly identified class of food-borne process contaminants of possible health concern. Due to hydrolysis 3-MCPD esters constitute a potentially significant source of free 3-MCPD exposure and their preliminary risk assessment was based on toxicological data on free 3-MCPD. 3-MCPD is a non-genotoxic carcinogen and a (provisional maximum) tolerable daily intake ((PM)TDI) of 2 mu g/kg bodyweight per day was established by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Both committees derived the TDI from a lowest observed adverse effect level, not a no observed adverse effect level, for renal tubular hyperplasia, using an uncertainty factor of 500. When using the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach and a BMDL10 value as point of departure, part of this uncertainty factor of 500 would no longer be needed. The present study presents a BMD analysis of the currently available chronic data on 3-MCPD mediated induction of tubular hyperplasia in rats as the most sensitive endpoint. The results indicate a (model-averaged) BMDL10 value of 0.72 mg/kg bw/day. The TDI that would be derived based on this BMDL10 value will depend on the uncertainty factor chosen. Using the default uncertainty factor of 100 for inter- and intraspecies extrapolation would result in a TDI of 7 mu g/kg bw/day.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1140-1147
JournalEuropean Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol 3-mcpd
  • edible oils
  • in-vivo
  • esters
  • mutagenicity
  • 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol
  • exposure
  • acid
  • food


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