Reference Manual SWAP; version 3.0.3

J.G. Kroes, J.C. van Dam

Research output: Book/ReportReportAcademic


SWAP simulates vertical transport of water, solutes and heat in variably saturated, cultivated soils. The program has been developed by Alterra and Wageningen University, and is designed to simulate transport processes at field scale level and during whole growing seasons. This manual describes the theoretical background and modeling concepts that were used for soil water flow, solute transport, heat flow, evapotranspiration, crop growth, multi-level drainage and interaction between field water balance and surface water management. An overview is given of model use, input requirements and output tables
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWageningen
Number of pages211
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Publication series

ISSN (Print)1566-7197


  • soil water
  • simulation models
  • agriculture
  • hydrology
  • evapotranspiration
  • irrigation
  • salinization
  • surface water


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