Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptice from Xyn10A from Cellulomonas fimi. SBD2 and a single SBD were introduced into the amylose-free potato mutant, amf, using appropriate signal sequences. The accumulation of SBD2 into transgenic starch granules was much higher than that of SBD. In a number of transformants, particularly amfSS3, the starch granules were much smaller than in control plants. The amfSS3 mean granule size was 7.8 mum, compared with 15.2 mum in the control, whereas other starch properties were unaltered. This new starch combines the advantage of the high purity of potato starch with that of the small granule size of other crop species, such as cassava, taro and wheat. This starch may find application in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic films. Both genes were also expressed in Escherichia coli and the affinity for soluble starch of the purified recombinant proteins was determined. SBD2 had an approximately 10-fold higher affinity for starch than SBD, indicating that the two appended SBDs act in synergy when binding to their target polysaccharide ligand.