Genetic variation in the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene may alter the expression and function of RAGE and affect disease development and outcome. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAGE were associated with diabetes and parameters of glucose homeostasis. In total, nine SNPs of RAGE were analyzed in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes in CODAM: a cohort study of diabetes and atherosclerosis, Maastricht. A significant difference in genotype frequency of SNP rs3134945 was observed between the nondiabetic control subjects, subjects with impaired glucose metabolism, and diabetic patients. The C allele of this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations, 2-h postload glucose concentrations, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. These results indicate that SNP rs3134945 or a locus in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Because the functionality of this polymorphism is not known, the mechanism whereby this polymorphism contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes has to be further elucidated.