Many aphid species have become virulent to host-plant resistance, which limits the sustainability of insect resistance breeding. However, when this adaptation to resistant plants is associated with fitness costs for the aphids, virulence can be lost in the absence of resistant plants. For two populations of the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), we evaluated whether virulence to Nr-gene-based resistance was lost on a susceptible lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae), and assessed possible costs of virulence. The feeding behaviour and performance of these aphids, reared and tested on susceptible and resistant lettuce, were investigated. The rearing plant affected feeding behaviour and performance of the aphids. Temporary reduction and long-term loss of virulence were found. The total duration of phloem intake was shorter after being reared on susceptible lettuce and tested on resistant lettuce. In addition, one population had a lower survival on resistant lettuce after being reared on susceptible lettuce. There were also indications of fitness costs of the virulence in both populations.
- nematode meloidogyne-incognita
- myzus-persicae hemiptera
- host-plant resistance
- tissue localization
- aphid resistance