Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats

Valérie O. Baede, Els M. Broens, Mirlin P. Spaninks, Arjen J. Timmerman, Haitske Graveland, Jaap A. Wagenaar, Birgitta Duim, Joost Hordijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health. Objectives: To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a cohort study was designed. Additionally, raw and non-raw commercial pet food products were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: Weekly fecal samples of 17 cats in the control group and 19 cats in the exposed group were collected for three weeks and analyzed for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires were obtained to determine additional risk factors. Fecal samples were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. PCR and sequence analysis was used for screening for ESBL genes in suspected isolates. Pet food samples were cultured in LB broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and processed as described above. Results: In the cohort study, ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 of 51 (5.9%) samples in the control group compared to 37 of 57 (89.5%) samples in the exposed group. A significant association was found between ESBL shedding and feeding raw pet food products (OR = 31.5). No other risk factors were identified in this study. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 14 of 18 (77.8%) raw pet food products and 0 of 35 non-raw pet food products. Conclusions: This study shows a strong association between shedding of ESBL-producing bacteria in household cats and feeding raw pet food. Raw pet food was often contaminated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0187239
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

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pet foods
beta-lactamase
Pets
Enterobacteriaceae
beta-Lactamases
households
Cats
risk factors
cats
foods
Cefotaxime
cefotaxime
Food
Bacteria
cohort studies
Cohort Studies
sampling
Raw Foods
Control Groups
Public health

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Baede, V. O., Broens, E. M., Spaninks, M. P., Timmerman, A. J., Graveland, H., Wagenaar, J. A., ... Hordijk, J. (2017). Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats. PLoS ONE, 12(11), [e0187239]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187239
Baede, Valérie O. ; Broens, Els M. ; Spaninks, Mirlin P. ; Timmerman, Arjen J. ; Graveland, Haitske ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Duim, Birgitta ; Hordijk, Joost. / Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats. In: PLoS ONE. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 11.
@article{fab781c551fd4431b5a23ae13f1835db,
title = "Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats",
abstract = "Background: Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health. Objectives: To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a cohort study was designed. Additionally, raw and non-raw commercial pet food products were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: Weekly fecal samples of 17 cats in the control group and 19 cats in the exposed group were collected for three weeks and analyzed for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires were obtained to determine additional risk factors. Fecal samples were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. PCR and sequence analysis was used for screening for ESBL genes in suspected isolates. Pet food samples were cultured in LB broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and processed as described above. Results: In the cohort study, ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 of 51 (5.9{\%}) samples in the control group compared to 37 of 57 (89.5{\%}) samples in the exposed group. A significant association was found between ESBL shedding and feeding raw pet food products (OR = 31.5). No other risk factors were identified in this study. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 14 of 18 (77.8{\%}) raw pet food products and 0 of 35 non-raw pet food products. Conclusions: This study shows a strong association between shedding of ESBL-producing bacteria in household cats and feeding raw pet food. Raw pet food was often contaminated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.",
author = "Baede, {Val{\'e}rie O.} and Broens, {Els M.} and Spaninks, {Mirlin P.} and Timmerman, {Arjen J.} and Haitske Graveland and Wagenaar, {Jaap A.} and Birgitta Duim and Joost Hordijk",
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month = "11",
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doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0187239",
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Baede, VO, Broens, EM, Spaninks, MP, Timmerman, AJ, Graveland, H, Wagenaar, JA, Duim, B & Hordijk, J 2017, 'Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 11, e0187239. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187239

Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats. / Baede, Valérie O.; Broens, Els M.; Spaninks, Mirlin P.; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Graveland, Haitske; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta; Hordijk, Joost.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 12, No. 11, e0187239, 01.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats

AU - Baede, Valérie O.

AU - Broens, Els M.

AU - Spaninks, Mirlin P.

AU - Timmerman, Arjen J.

AU - Graveland, Haitske

AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A.

AU - Duim, Birgitta

AU - Hordijk, Joost

PY - 2017/11/1

Y1 - 2017/11/1

N2 - Background: Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health. Objectives: To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a cohort study was designed. Additionally, raw and non-raw commercial pet food products were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: Weekly fecal samples of 17 cats in the control group and 19 cats in the exposed group were collected for three weeks and analyzed for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires were obtained to determine additional risk factors. Fecal samples were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. PCR and sequence analysis was used for screening for ESBL genes in suspected isolates. Pet food samples were cultured in LB broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and processed as described above. Results: In the cohort study, ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 of 51 (5.9%) samples in the control group compared to 37 of 57 (89.5%) samples in the exposed group. A significant association was found between ESBL shedding and feeding raw pet food products (OR = 31.5). No other risk factors were identified in this study. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 14 of 18 (77.8%) raw pet food products and 0 of 35 non-raw pet food products. Conclusions: This study shows a strong association between shedding of ESBL-producing bacteria in household cats and feeding raw pet food. Raw pet food was often contaminated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

AB - Background: Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health. Objectives: To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a cohort study was designed. Additionally, raw and non-raw commercial pet food products were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: Weekly fecal samples of 17 cats in the control group and 19 cats in the exposed group were collected for three weeks and analyzed for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires were obtained to determine additional risk factors. Fecal samples were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. PCR and sequence analysis was used for screening for ESBL genes in suspected isolates. Pet food samples were cultured in LB broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and processed as described above. Results: In the cohort study, ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 of 51 (5.9%) samples in the control group compared to 37 of 57 (89.5%) samples in the exposed group. A significant association was found between ESBL shedding and feeding raw pet food products (OR = 31.5). No other risk factors were identified in this study. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 14 of 18 (77.8%) raw pet food products and 0 of 35 non-raw pet food products. Conclusions: This study shows a strong association between shedding of ESBL-producing bacteria in household cats and feeding raw pet food. Raw pet food was often contaminated with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0187239

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0187239

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 11

M1 - e0187239

ER -