Background Targeted risk-based surveillance of poultry types (PT) with different risks of introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) infection may improve the sensitivity of surveillance. Objective To quantify the rate of introduction of LPAIv infections in different PT. Methods Data from the Dutch LPAIv surveillance programme (2007–2010) were analysed using a generalised linear mixed and spatial model. Results Outdoor-layer, turkey, duck-breeder and meat-duck, farms had a 11, 8, 24 and 13 times higher rate of introduction of LPAIv than indoor-layer farms, respectively. Conclusion Differences in the rate of introduction of LPAIv could be used to (re)design a targeted risk-based surveillance programme.