Tetracycline (TC) specific luminescent bacterial biosensors were used in a rapid TC residue assay sensitized to meet the EU maximum residue limit (MRL) for TC residues in poultry muscle tissue (100/mu g kg(-1)) by membrane-permeabilizing and chelating agents polymyxin B and EDTA. Sensitivities of 5 ng g(-1) for doxycycline, 7.5 ng g(-1) for chlortetracycline, and 25 ng g(-1) for tetracycline and oxytetracycline were reached. Except for doxycycline, the MRLs of these tetracyclines include their 4-epimer metabolites. In the biosensor assay, all four 4-epimers showed induction capacity and antimicrobial activity, and antimicrobial activity was also observed in the inhibition assay, although with lower efficiency than that of the corresponding parent compound in both assays. The biosensor assay is an inexpensive and rapid high-throughput screening method for the detection of 4-epimer TC residues along with their parent compounds.
- tet repressor
- sensor strain