Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry

M.M. Schrage, Y. Shen, F.W. Claassen, H. Zuilhof, M.W.F. Nielen, B. Chen, T.A. van Beek

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Abstract

Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 µL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7–10 mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K]+ ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-253
JournalJournal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods
Volume1317
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Illicium
Pimpinella
Neurotoxins
Stars
Mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Fruits
Ions
Mass spectrometers
Fruit
Food safety
Poisons
Electric potential
Benchmarking
Ionization
Food Safety
Methanol
Wetting
Heating
Poisoning

Keywords

  • illicium-anisatum
  • verum

Cite this

@article{f031c8aa2d724e04ae0c8bdd994d1b0f,
title = "Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry",
abstract = "Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 µL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7–10 mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K]+ ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages.",
keywords = "illicium-anisatum, verum",
author = "M.M. Schrage and Y. Shen and F.W. Claassen and H. Zuilhof and M.W.F. Nielen and B. Chen and {van Beek}, T.A.",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1016/j.chroma.2013.07.072",
language = "English",
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journal = "Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods",
issn = "0021-9673",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Rapid and simple neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry

AU - Schrage, M.M.

AU - Shen, Y.

AU - Claassen, F.W.

AU - Zuilhof, H.

AU - Nielen, M.W.F.

AU - Chen, B.

AU - van Beek, T.A.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 µL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7–10 mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K]+ ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages.

AB - Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 µL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7–10 mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K]+ ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H]- ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages.

KW - illicium-anisatum

KW - verum

U2 - 10.1016/j.chroma.2013.07.072

DO - 10.1016/j.chroma.2013.07.072

M3 - Article

VL - 1317

SP - 246

EP - 253

JO - Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods

JF - Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods

SN - 0021-9673

ER -