Rapid analysis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry

W.F. Duvivier, T.A. van Beek, E.J.M. Pennings, M.W.F. Nielen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

RATIONALE - Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. METHODS - Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using ¿-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. RESULTS - The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R2¿=¿0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. CONCLUSIONS - A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-690
JournalRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Volume28
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Dronabinol
Ionization
Mass spectrometry
Quinine
Decontamination
Methylene Chloride
Stainless Steel
Liquid chromatography
Street Drugs
Cannabis
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Desorption
Screening
Contamination
Gases
Vacuum
Scanning
Imaging techniques
Lasers

Keywords

  • synthetic cannabinoids
  • cocaine
  • drugs
  • identification
  • capabilities
  • metabolites
  • validation
  • samples
  • abuse

Cite this

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title = "Rapid analysis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry",
abstract = "RATIONALE - Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. METHODS - Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using ¿-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. RESULTS - The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26{\%} RSD) and linearity of the method (R2¿=¿0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. CONCLUSIONS - A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse.",
keywords = "synthetic cannabinoids, cocaine, drugs, identification, capabilities, metabolites, validation, samples, abuse",
author = "W.F. Duvivier and {van Beek}, T.A. and E.J.M. Pennings and M.W.F. Nielen",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1002/rcm.6831",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
pages = "682--690",
journal = "Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry",
issn = "0951-4198",
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}

Rapid analysis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry. / Duvivier, W.F.; van Beek, T.A.; Pennings, E.J.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2014, p. 682-690.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rapid analysis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry

AU - Duvivier, W.F.

AU - van Beek, T.A.

AU - Pennings, E.J.M.

AU - Nielen, M.W.F.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - RATIONALE - Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. METHODS - Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using ¿-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. RESULTS - The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R2¿=¿0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. CONCLUSIONS - A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse.

AB - RATIONALE - Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. METHODS - Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using ¿-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. RESULTS - The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R2¿=¿0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. CONCLUSIONS - A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse.

KW - synthetic cannabinoids

KW - cocaine

KW - drugs

KW - identification

KW - capabilities

KW - metabolites

KW - validation

KW - samples

KW - abuse

U2 - 10.1002/rcm.6831

DO - 10.1002/rcm.6831

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 682

EP - 690

JO - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

JF - Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

SN - 0951-4198

IS - 7

ER -