RAF-like protein kinases mediate a deeply conserved, rapid auxin response

Andre Kuhn, Mark Roosjen, Sumanth Mutte, Shiv Mani Dubey, Vanessa Polet Carrillo Carrasco, Sjef Boeren, Aline Monzer, Jasper Koehorst, Takayuki Kohchi, Ryuichi Nishihama, Matyáš Fendrych, Joris Sprakel, Jiří Friml, Dolf Weijers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The plant-signaling molecule auxin triggers fast and slow cellular responses across land plants and algae. The nuclear auxin pathway mediates gene expression and controls growth and development in land plants, but this pathway is absent from algal sister groups. Several components of rapid responses have been identified in Arabidopsis, but it is unknown if these are part of a conserved mechanism. We recently identified a fast, proteome-wide phosphorylation response to auxin. Here, we show that this response occurs across 5 land plant and algal species and converges on a core group of shared targets. We found conserved rapid physiological responses to auxin in the same species and identified rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF)-like protein kinases as central mediators of auxin-triggered phosphorylation across species. Genetic analysis connects this kinase to both auxin-triggered protein phosphorylation and rapid cellular response, thus identifying an ancient mechanism for fast auxin responses in the green lineage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-148.e17
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2024


  • auxin
  • plant evolution
  • protein phosphorylation
  • RAF kinase


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