Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms)

W. Gao, A. Weijn, J.J.P. Baars, J.J. Mes, R.G.F. Visser, A.S.M. Sonnenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H2: 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31% phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44% variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54% variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-81
JournalFungal Genetics and Biology
Volume77
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Agaricus
Agaricales
Quantitative Trait Loci
Color
Chromosomes
Genetic Recombination
Population
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
Haploidy
Genotype
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Spores
Breeding
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Skin

Keywords

  • melanin biosynthesis pathway
  • latent isoform ppo4
  • pseudomonas-tolaasii
  • genetic-analysis
  • tyrosinase
  • purification
  • behavior
  • strains
  • genome

Cite this

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title = "Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms)",
abstract = "White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H2: 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31{\%} phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44{\%} variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54{\%} variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom.",
keywords = "melanin biosynthesis pathway, latent isoform ppo4, pseudomonas-tolaasii, genetic-analysis, tyrosinase, purification, behavior, strains, genome",
author = "W. Gao and A. Weijn and J.J.P. Baars and J.J. Mes and R.G.F. Visser and A.S.M. Sonnenberg",
year = "2015",
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language = "English",
volume = "77",
pages = "69--81",
journal = "Fungal Genetics and Biology",
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Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms). / Gao, W.; Weijn, A.; Baars, J.J.P.; Mes, J.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

In: Fungal Genetics and Biology, Vol. 77, 2015, p. 69-81.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms)

AU - Gao, W.

AU - Weijn, A.

AU - Baars, J.J.P.

AU - Mes, J.J.

AU - Visser, R.G.F.

AU - Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

PY - 2015

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N2 - White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H2: 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31% phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44% variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54% variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom.

AB - White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H2: 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31% phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44% variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54% variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom.

KW - melanin biosynthesis pathway

KW - latent isoform ppo4

KW - pseudomonas-tolaasii

KW - genetic-analysis

KW - tyrosinase

KW - purification

KW - behavior

KW - strains

KW - genome

U2 - 10.1016/j.fgb.2015.04.003

DO - 10.1016/j.fgb.2015.04.003

M3 - Article

VL - 77

SP - 69

EP - 81

JO - Fungal Genetics and Biology

JF - Fungal Genetics and Biology

SN - 1087-1845

ER -