Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

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Abstract

Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ß-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is described for the determination and confirmation of eight penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). To prevent degradation of penicillin residues during workup, a derivatisation procedure was developed, by which penicillins were converted to stable piperidine derivatives. Deuterated piperidine derivatives were synthesised for all relevant penicillins, enabling the use of isotope dilution for accurate quantification. Penicillin residues were derivatised in the crude extract with piperidine and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The penicillin piperidine derivatives were determined by LC–MS/MS. The method was validated at the current MRLs, which range from 25–300 µg kg-1 in muscle and kidney to 4–30 µg kg-1 in milk as well as at the target value of 100 µg kg-1 chosen for animal feed, according to the EU requirements for a quantitative confirmatory method. Accuracy ranged from 94–113% (muscle), 83–111% (kidney) and 87–103% (milk) to 88–116% (animal feed). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD)r) ranged from 5–13% (muscle, n¿=¿18), 4–17% (kidney, n¿=¿7) and 5–18% (milk, n¿=¿7) to 11–32% (animal feed, n¿=¿18). Inter-day precision (RSDRL, n¿=¿18) ranged from 6–23% (muscle) to 11–36% (animal feed). From the results, it was concluded that the method was fit for purpose at the target MRLs in animal tissue and target levels for animal feed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3027-3040
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume396
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • beta-lactam antibiotics
  • solid-phase extraction
  • bovine-milk
  • precolumn derivatization
  • antimicrobial residues
  • degradation-products
  • confirmatory assay
  • kidney
  • muscle
  • amoxicillin

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